Basically this is a question you need to ask yourself in conjunction with “when do I need the goods to get wherever I want them?”
If you only have small parcels, then Post will always be the cheapest option. Post offers a service to door, and usually you have a choice of air (priority) or sea parcel services.
Courier services are great for smaller commercial consignments that need a door to door service.
Airfreight is exactly what it says. Urgency is usually the deciding factor in utilising this mode of transport. This mode of transport is not suited for low value goods or when price is an issue.
Depending on from and to where you need the goods sent, there may be a daily service, or at least a mid week and weekend service offered by freight consolidators.
For large, oversize or overweight packages, regular airline services may not be able to handle your items, so for when this is the case, special flights and services can usually be arranged at a cost.
Seafreight is used much more than any other mode of transport. From whole shiploads of commodities like oil and gas, to specialised car carriers, and general containers.
Both full and partial services, there are always services to the nearest sea ports. (To and from will require internal services). Major shipping lines offer dedicated weekly services between major ports. Lesser ports and specialised cargo are serviced less frequently or by fewer shipping lines. For less than full container loads, there are
dedicated consolidation services. Direct or transhipment services are a simple supply and demand process.
In all cases, if your cargo is considered hazardous or obnoxious, please ensure that you ALWAYS declare this, and check for acceptance. There are many cargoes that can only transported by seafreight, and even then, they are not always able to be shipped when you want them to be.